Click on chart to see more strategies

[Text-based users click here for chart]


Eliminating Non-Sustainability/
Regenerating the Environment

Preferred State:
Sustainable environmental systems for 100% of humanity; a complete ozone layer over the entire planet

Problem State:
6 million square mile hole in ozone layer over Antarctica; 5% reduction over northern latitudes

Strategy 12: Stopping CFC Production

The ozone layer that covers the Earth functions as a shield against ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation causes damage to crops, plankton and fish larvae and causes sunburn, eye cataracts and skin cancer in humans. Hospitals in northern Europe have recorded a doubling in skin cancer cases in recent years, and Australian researchers report that a 1% decrease in ozone protection may be linked to a 3% increase in skin cancer cases. Ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere is caused by chloroflurocarbons' (CFCs) interaction with the ozone. CFCs are used as propellants in aerosol spray cans, as refrigerant gases, solvent cleaners and in the manufacture of foam-blown plastics. By banning the production of CFCs, subsidizing the conversion from these chemicals to environmentally safe substitutes, and providing incentives/penalties for the reclaiming of existing stocks of CFCs that are currently in use, the world can stop the decrease of ozone in the upper atmosphere.(114)

Costs/Benefits

Such a program of phasing in substitutes for CFCs, tax incentives and further research and development would cost $5 billion per year for ten years. This is 0.64% of the world's total military expenditures, or about what the German government provides in subsides to its coal industry each year,(115) or about 3.7% of what the US provides in tax breaks and subsidies to its energy, timber, financial services, construction and advertising industries.(116)

Benefits include a reduction in skin cancer, other skin problems and eye cataracts in humans as well as grazing animals, primarily in the southern hemisphere, but increasingly in the northern regions too. Fish catches and crop yields would no longer be in jeopardy from this cause and a more stable food system and global environment would result.

Next Strategy
What the World Wants Chart

Eliminate Starvation and Malnutrition: $19 billion Eliminate Starvation & Malnutrition: $19 billion Provide Health Care and AIDS Control: $21 billion Provide Health Care and AIDS Control: $21 billion Provide Shelter: $21 billion Provide Shelter: $21 billion Provide Clean, Safe Water: $10 billion Elliminate Illiteracy: $5 billion Provide Clean, Safe Energy--Energy Efficiency: $33 billion Provide Clean, Safe Energy--Energy Efficiency: $33 billion Provide Clean, Safe Energy--Energy Efficiency: $33 billion Provide Clean, Safe Energy--Renewable Energy: $17 billion Provide Clean, Safe Energy--Renewable Energy: $17 billion Provide Clean, Safe Energy--Renewable Energy: $17 billion Retire Developing Nations Debt: $30 billion Stabilize Population: $10.5 billion Stabilize Population: $10.5 billion Prevent Soil Erosion: $24 billion Prevent Soil Erosion: $24 billion Stop Deforestation: $7 billion Stop Deforestation: $7 billion Stop Ozone Depletion: $5 billion Prevent Acid Rain: $8 billion Prevent Global Warming: $8 billion Prevent Global Warming: $8 billion Prevent Global Warming: $8 billion Remove Landmines: $2 billion Refugee Relief: $5 billion Refugee Relief: $5 billion Eliminate Nuclear Weapons: $7 billion Eliminate Nuclear Weapons: $7 billion Eliminate Nuclear Weapons: $7 billion Build Democracy: $2 billion
Copyright 1998 - 2001, WGI, Inc. All rights reserved.